Because all of the major turmoils from the 1960s and the 1970s — the counterculture movement, the Vietnam war, the Watergate scandal and the domestic economic crisis — many Americans were left frustrated. Their confidence towards their fellow citizens and the government were severely undermined. By the end of Jimmy Carter’s presidency, the idealistic dreams of many Americans were destroyed by inflation, foreign policy troubles and escalating crime. To cope with the turmoil, Americans adopted a new conservatism in social, political and economic way of living, under the Reagan administration.
The 1980s is also a decade known for its materialism and consumerism, not to mention the rise of the “yuppie” culture. Many young, highly-educated people who were enjoying good pay got to also enjoy the benefits from it, of course. Having disposable income at hand, they were able to indulge their pleasures such as hitting the bars, watching box-office films, spending on designer apparel, records, fancy cars, as well as the latest in technology back then. They were also able to imitate the latest fashions of their movie and pop music idols.
And speaking of fashion, 1980s is also memorable in terms of fashion. Much of the early 1980s fashion were very much like the 1970s — colors somewhat subdued, lots of browns, tans, and oranges. Blocky shapes were in every corner, and dressing like a tennis player was still considered cool.
But by the mid-1980s, the whole thing changed when pop music stars such as Madonna and Cyndi Lauper became popular. They introduced an entirely new style that most people associate with the 1980s to the present day. Bright colors, spandex, bangles, hoop earrings, teased hair, loud makeup and neon clothing were the order of 80s fashion for women. For the guys, activewear such as sweatpants and sweatshirts, denim jeans and jackets, wild-colored thick, itchy sweaters and athletic shoes were “in” during the decade.
The 1980s is the age of the blockbuster films. The decade also saw the emphasis and the growth in the film franchises, most especially in the science fiction, action and horror genres. Such films as The Empire Strikes Back (in the Star Wars films), the first Indiana Jones film Raiders of the Lost Ark, and the first installment of Back to the Future, raked in millions of dollars at the box office and spawned many sequels. You cannot recall the 1980s without remembering your favorite teen comedies, which saw their emergence and popularity during the decade. Best examples of this sub-genre include Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, Fast Times at Ridgemont High and Revenge of the Nerds. The new rating system PG-13 was also introduced during this decade.
Despite the virtual monopoly enjoyed by the three big television networks — ABC, CBS and NBC — cable television began to experience unprecedented growth. For a fee, subscribers got to enjoy a wide array of channels that include MTV, ESPN, HBO, CNN, Nickelodeon and others. Of course, we take cable TV for granted these days, but way back in the 1980s few households were having the privilege of a cable TV.
Music of the 1980s
The 1980s opened with a tragic note when John Lennon was shot to death by a fan named Mark Chapman just as the former was coming back into the public eye with a new solo album. Lennon’s death triggered a global outpouring of grief.
The music scene in this decade was pretty much about image — and with the arrival of the Music Television (MTV) in 1981, the images that accompanied the artist mattered much more than ever. By 1983 MTV was available on over 2,000 cable channels (from a mere 300 on its maiden launch). Another music channel VH1 was launched in 1984 and introduced a more classic rock format. Simply put, the predominance of these music videos as around-the-clock marketing tool was effective and influential in bringing several new artists as well as new genres into the mainstream. Speaking of genres, the 1980s introduced (or re-introduced) many of them such as the resurgence of heavy metal, the advent of new wave, hip-hop, rap music, hair metal, all of which influenced music in the present.
The 1980s also reflected the beginning of an era of great gap when it comes to income. As many pop stars were becoming affluent during the 1980s, they wanted to prove to the world that they could be generous and have a serious intention by tackling certain causes. As a result, rock and artists contributed to the world by participating in charity concerts and recordings. These include Band Aid, We Are the World, as well as Live Aid and Farm Aid concerts.
Best-selling artists of the 1980s
- Michael JacksonBorn: Michael Joseph Jackson on August 29, 1958 in Gary, Indiana
Died: June 25, 2009 in Los Angeles, California
You cannot recall the Eighties music without thinking of Michael Jackson. Jackson was slowly coming into his own by first launching his solo career in the 1970s while maintaining his position as one of the members of the popular The Jackson Five. He was slowly coming into his own until he became a dominant figure in the 1980s. Jackson’s music videos, notably for “Beat It,” “Billie Jean” and “Thriller,” helped break down racial barriers and revolutionize the medium into an art form and promotional tool. The success of his music videos also benefitted MTV in its early days as the videos brought the music channel to fame. His Thriller album, released in 1982, becane the best-selling album of all time, having sold over 65 million copies worldwide. His other albums Off the Wall, Bad, Dangerous, and HIStory, are also included in the best-selling albums list. Apart from his best-selling records and tours, his much-publicized personal life often put him into the spotlight. His death in 2009 triggered a global outpouring of grief.
Jackson is one of the few artists to have been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice: one as a member of the Jackson Five and another as a solo artist.
Biggest hit singles:
“Got to Be There,” “Rockin’ Robin,” “Ben,” “Don’t Stop ‘Til You Get Enough,” “Rock with You,” “Off the Wall,” “She’s Out of My Life,” “Bille Jean,” “Beat It,” “Wanna Be Startin’ Somethin’,” “Human Nature,” “P.Y.T. (Pretty Young Thing),” “Thriller,” “I Just Can’t Stop Loving You,” “Bad,” “The Way You Make Me Feel,” “Man in the Mirror,” “Dirty Diana,” “Smooth Criminal,” “Black or White,” “Remember the Time”/”Come Together,” “In the Closet,” “Will You Be There,” “You Are Not Alone,” “You Rock My World.”
- MadonnaBorn: Madonna Louise Ciccone on August 16, 1958 in Bay City, Michigan
Starting from a humble background, Madonna rose to become one of the one of the best-known musical figures in the 1980s. Her raunchy image, pleasure-celebrating dance music and bizarre music videos gave feminism a much-needed reshaping throughout the decade. She broke sexual boundaries and made eroticism one of the critical important elements of pop music, and challenging religious and social conventions. Since her rise to fame, Madonna has become one of the most consistently controversial music figures. However, throughout her career, Madonna is also known for reinventing both her music and her image, over which she has firmly maintained control.
Madonna has sold over 300 million records worldwide and is considered the best-selling female artist of all time. She continues to be a big influence especially to other aspiring female artists who someday hope to make it big like she does.
“Lucky Star,” “Borderline,” “Like a Virgin,” “Material Girl,” “Crazy for You,” “Angel,” “Dress You Up,” “Live to Tell,” “Papa Don’t Preach,” “True Blue,” “Open Your Heart,” “Las Isla Bonita,” “Who’s That Girl,” “Causing a Commotion,” “Like a Prayer,” “Express Yourself,” “Cherish,” “Keep It Together,” “Vogue,” “Hanky Panky,” “Justify My Love,” “Rescue Me,” “This Used to Be My Playground,” “Erotica,” “Deeper and Deeper,” “I’ll Remember,” “Secret,” “Take a Bow,” “You’ll See,” “Don’t Cry for Me Argentina,” “Ray of Light,” “Music,” “Don’t Tell Me,” “Die Another Day,” “Hung Up,” “Give Me All Your Lovin’.”
- PrinceBorn: Prince Roger Nelson on June 7, 1958 in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
For over three decades, Prince has been known for his innovative, eclectic work, not to mention his flamboyant stage presence and a wide vocal range. Often referred to also as the “Artist Formerly Known as Prince,” the multi-instrumentalist artist found huge fame through his eponymous effort in 1979. Thanks to his eclectic blending of funk, R&B, soul, hip-hop, disco, jazz and pop plus his sexually-laced lyrics, Prince continued his success through his later records and received several awards throughout his career. His personal life and relationships is also subject to public scrutiny.
Prince also formed the bands The Revolution and The New Power Generation. He also branched out into acting. He has sold over 100 million copies worldwide, making Prince one of the best-selling artists ever.
“Little Red Corvette,” “Delirious,” “When Doves Cry,” “Let’s Go Crazy,” “Purple Rain,” “I Would Die 4 U,” “Raspberry Beret,” “Pop Life,” “Kiss,” “Sign o’ the Times,” “U Got the Look,” “I Could Never Take the Place of Your Man,” “Alphabet,” “Batdance,” “Thieves in the Temple,” “Cream,” “Diamonds and Pearls,” “7,” “The Most Beautiful Girl in the World.”
- U2Formed: 1976 in Dublin, Ireland
Members: Bono (born Paul Hewson), The Edge (born David Howell Evans), Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen Jr.
U2’s musical roots was based on post-punk but in later years the band included pop music influences to form their own style. Their songs, often enriched with spiritual imagery, aims their attention on personal and sociopolitical matters. By the mid-1980s, U2 grew to be one of the top acts of the 1980s particularly when their 1987 album Joshua Tree came out, which transformed the band into superstars. Never wanting to stagnate, the band continued to reinvent themselves and from this garnered past-Eighties successes with Achtung Baby and All That You Can’t Leave Behind.
U2 have sold over 150 million records worldwide, and are still undisputed as the only musical group to have won the most Grammy awards with 22.
Most significant songs:
“New Year’s Day,” “Sunday, Bloody Sunday,” “Pride (In the Name of Love),” “With or Without You,” “I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For,” “Desire,” “Mysterious Ways,” “One,” “Discotheque,” “Beautiful Day,” “Walk On,” “Sometimes You Can’t Make It On Your Own.”
- Bruce SpringsteenBorn: September 23, 1949 in Long Branch, New Jersey
Also known as: “The Boss”
Springsteen’s brand of roots/folk rock and lyrics that speak of social and political sentiments and New Jersey working-class pride brought him to superstardom. His lengthy live shows and concerts also showcased his trademark energtic performance. His albums Born in to Run and Born in the USA that chronicle the daily lives and struggles of the American people, shot him to mainstream fame. Springsteen has sold over 120 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling artists of all time.
Biggest hits and significant songs:
“Born to Run,” “Hungry Heart,” “Dancing in the Dark,” “Born in the USA,” “Cover Me,” “I’m on Fire,” “Glory Days,” “I’m Goin’ Down,” “My Hometown,” “War,” “Brillian Disguise,” “Tunnel of Love,” “Streets of Philadelphia.”
- Phil CollinsBorn: January 30, 1951 in Chiswick, Greater London, England
The once-drummer for the popular English group Genesis became the lead singer after Peter Gabriel left the band in the mid-1970s to pursue his own successful solo career. Since then Genesis made the transition as a progressive rock band into a more radio-friendly pop group releasing highly successful albums such as Duke, Abacab, Genesis and Invisible Touch. As Genesis were making the transition, Collins had also developed his singing and songwriting abilities and established a solo career in the early 1980s. He reached the pinnacle of success not soon after, scoring hits such as “You Can’t Hurry Love,” “Against All Odds,” “One More Night,” “A Groovy Kind of Love,” and “Another Day in Paradise.” He managed to maintain his own solo career and as a member of Genesis despite the band’s shifting lineup until he lay low in the early 2010’s.
Collins’ total worldwide record sales as a solo artist amount to about 150 million.
“You Can’t Hurry Love,” “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now),” “Sussudio,” “One More Night,” “Don’t Lose My Number,” “Take Me Home,” “A Groovy Kind of Love,” “Two Hearts,” “Another Day in Paradise,” “I Wish It Would Rain Down,” “Do You Remember?,” “Something Happened on the Way to Heaven.”
- Dire StraitsFormed: 1977 in Deptford, London, England
Original members: Mark Knopfler, David Knopfler, John Illsley, Pick Withers
Despite the prevalence of punk rock in the band’s early years, Dire Straits went ahead with their roots rock/pub rock fare, with some new wave thrown in. In 1985 Dire Straits released Brothers in Arms, which eventually went to #1 on both US and UK charts. It also over 30 million copies worldwide, becoming one of the world’s best-selling albums, and also won two Grammy Awards and the “Best British Album” at the Brit Awards. Brothers in Arms also became the first compact disc album to sell over a million copies.
Dire Straits are also one of the few artists who have stayed the longest on the charts. The band split in 1988, and reunited in 1991, but in 1995 they broke up for good when Mark Knopfler pursued a solo career. Dire Straits have sold over 120 million records worldwide.
“Sultans of Swing,” “Private Investigation,” “Money for Nothing,” “Walk of Life”
- QueenFormed: 1970 in London, England
Original lineup: Freddie Mercury, Brian May, John Deacon, Roger Taylor
Queen is British rock band who reached the peak of their career in the 1970s and the 1980s. The group, who was then fronted by the charismatic late singer Freddy Mercury in their heyday, is well known for its sports anthems and classic rock songs, especially the hits “We Are the Champions” and the epic opera-rock “Bohemian Rhapsody” whose promotional video became one of the earliest successful music videos. “Bohemian Rhapsody” was also later re-released as part of Wayne’s World movie soundtrack which became very successful as well. Queen is is widely considered the pioneers of heavy metal, glam rock and stadium rock.
In the 1980s Queen continued their majestic presence especially in the United Kingdom and parts of Europe as well. They were also one of the biggest stadium rock bands by that particular decade, strengthened by their number one US hit “Another One Bites the Dust” and their appearance in 1985’s Live Aid concert.
“Bohemian Rhapsody,” “We Are the Champions,” “We Will Rock You,” “Crazy Little Thing Called Love,” “Another One Bites the Dust.”
- The PoliceFormed: 1977 in London, England
Members: Sting, Andy Summers, Stewart Copeland
The Police is widely regarded as one of the first new wave acts to achieve mainstream success, thanks for their blend of several genres such as punk, reggae and jazz to concoct their own style. Fronted by Sting, the band released one of the most successful albums during the 1980s, Synchronicity. The album topped both the US and UK album charts, and sold over 8 million copies in the US alone.
The Police split in 1986, but reunited in 2007 for a one-off “The Police Reunion Tour” that lasted until 2008; that very world tour alone made them the highest-earning musicians for the latter year. The band itself has sold over 100 million records worldwide. Sting also has had a successful career who also has sold millions of records globally.
Most significant songs:
“Roxanne,” “Message in a Bottle,” (#1 in the UK), “Don’t Stand So Close to Me,” “De Do Do Do, De Da Da Da,” “Every Little Thing She Does Is Magic,” “Every Breath You Take,” “King of Pain,” “Wrapped Around Your Finger”
- The Rolling StonesFounded: 1962 in London, England
1980s lineup: Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Ronnie Wood
The Rolling Stones were still very much active in the 1980s. In fact, the band embarked on their long and successful American and European tours in 1981 and 1982, respectively, to support their album Tattoo You. Their American tour became the highest-grossing tour of the year, accumulating $50 million in ticket sales.
Then came the growing animosity of between Jagger and Richards, as Jagger was slowly moving away to pursue a solo career. In fact, it was Richards who practically kept the recording sessions for their 1986 album Dirty Work while Jagger was absent in the studio for most of the time, focusing more on his solo efforts. But the two patched things up and the Stones returned to form with 1989’s Steel Wheels LP. Their year-long tour in support of the album went on to become a huge success, earning $98 million dollars in ticket sales.
Highest-charting singles (overall, US Billboard Hot 100; bold letters indicating hits in the 1980s):
“Time Is on My Side,” “The Last Time,” “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction,” “Get Off of My Cloud,” “As Tears Go By,” “19th Nervous Breakdown,” “Mother’s Little Helper,” “Have You Seen Your Mother, Baby, Standing in the Shadow?,” “Ruby Tuesday,” “Jumpin’ Jack Flash,” “Honky Tonk Women,” “Brown Sugar,” “Tumbling Dice,” “Angie,” “Fool to Cry,” “Miss You,” “Beast of Burden,” “Emotional Rescue,” “Start Me Up,” “Undercover of the Night,” “Harlem Shuffle,” and “Mixed Emotions.”
Musical movements of the 1980s
- MTVArguably the most significant event to come out of the 1980s is the MTV. MTV (Music Television) made its debut on August 1, 1981 and became the first cable network to showcase music videos. Fittingly enough, the first music video ever broadcast by the MTV was the Buggles’ “Video Killed the Radio Star.” Since the creation and the launch of the MTV, the music landscape would be changed forever. Apart from the music and lyrics, the audience would now turn their focus on the fashion and histrionics, at least in the world of pop music. For over 30 years, the MTV has been instrumental in bringing new artists who hope to be recognized and make it big in the business.
- New pop superstarsBecause of the MTV, pop stars and their music dramatically changed and experienced the level of fame that wasn’t seen before by other stars that preceded them. Examples of these emerging pop stars include Michael Jackosn, Madonna, Whitney Houston and Prince. For these new pop sensations, image also considerably mattered apart from the music. These stars also influenced the fashion and the trends of the day, and because of the advent of these music videos, fans get to see the first-hand glimpse into the emerging trends. Their songs set the standards what pop music should be, and through their constant reinvention they were able to become (or manage to be) relevant in the music scene.
Even after over thirty years, they are still the same standards that the pop stars of the present often compared to. There are many reasons why these pop stars became popular. First was their genuine talent. Other reasons include the fact that they were able to take advantage of the greater public interest towards celebrity gossip, the latest fashion and trends, and the growing obsession towards celebrity culture. It was also connected to the people during the 1980s who had attained a greater disposable income and a want to follow celebrity affluence. The image of the pop stars was also magnified due to changes in technology like the MTV and the advent of CD’s and cassettes. And last but not the least, the success of these pop stars can also be attributed by the smart marketing and promotion by their record companies and the artists’ own ability to consciously see themselves as brands.
- Old pop stars and their renewed (mostly solo) careersAnother trend in pop music during the 1980s is the re-emergence of older musicians who had been once in a popular act. Some of these old artists getting a “second wind” at stardom include Paul McCartney, Cher, Diana Ross and Lionel Richie. Many of them updated their sound and image, or worked with the newer generation of artists to keep themselves relevant. It has so much to do with the fact that the Baby Boomer was now coming into adulthood and by now enjoying their own means to spend on records of the artists they grew up with. These artists and their records brought a sense of nostalgia but at the same time their songs and styles were fresh and keeping up with the changing times.
- Rap and hip-hopHip-hop and rap music was actually “invented” in the 1970s but it eventually got to enjoy mainstream popularity in the 1980s. Initially, the genres had a difficult time breaking into the mainstream because MTV was reluctant to show music videos featuring black aritsts. But after receiving public criticism and because of the meteoric success of popularity of Michael Jackson’s music videos, MTV finally paved the way for emerging hip-hop and rap artists such as Run DMC and LL Cool J. They were the ones who successfully launched themselves in the era of commercialized rap and hip-hop music.
Hip hop and rap music are characterized by sampling old records, rapping lyrics and delivery, fun sounds with an otherwise deep message, beat-boxes and electronic sounds. By the end of the decade hip-hop and rap music became a global phenomenon. Run DMC and LL Cool J brought the genres into the mainstream, while the Beastie Boys made the genre more appealing to whites, and Salt-n-Pepa became rap and hip-hop’s female pioneers. Rap and hip-hop have been since taken into different other forms and sub-genres such as rap metal and rapcore.
Technological advancements, brekathroughs and innovations in music during the 1960s
- Compact disc or CDAlthough the compact disc was actually invented in the 1960s, its commercial impact really took off in the 1980s. The first commercial CD was released in Japan, in October 1982. It was Billy Joel’s 52nd Street album. The brand-new media format was gradually gaining wide public acceptance. The first CD single ever to be released was Dire Straits’ “Brothers in Arms”, in 1985, for promotional purposes in Germany to commemorate the group’s European tour. And speaking of Dire Straits again, their album — also titled Brothers in Arms — also became the first album in this format to sell over a million copies. By 1986, CD sales amounted to about 50 million, after initial sluggish sales.
- Digital audio cassette (DAT)Introduced by Sony (in the US) in the late 1980s, this technology uses the cassette format to record digitally but by a smaller-sized cassette. Due to the pressure from the recording industry, DAT hardware makers agreed to install Serial Copy Management System or SCMS to avoid digital copying.
- The WalkmanAlthough it was introduced in 1979 (see its background in the Music of the 1970s), the Walkman became the epitome of “cool” in the 1980s. Imagine if you were having a Walkman those days, you would be considered “in.” You may consider it as the “iPod” of the Eighties generation. And speaking of iPod, that and the other portable music players such like the Discman wouldn’t have existed if not for their “parent” the Walkman. According to Sony’s website, 50 million Walkman’s had been manufactured ten years after the launch of the first model.
The 1980s entered a time of new political, social and economic conservatism after enduring the “mess” and the frustration left by the events from the 1960s and the 1970s. The 1980s is also the decade of materialism and consumerism and these views were reflected even on the pop culture. The happy-go-lucky “hippies” of the 1960s were replaced by the young urban professionals aka “yuppies” who enjoyed the materialistic comforts of modern life. Cable television emerged and became popular, and the success of the MTV in particular launched the careers of many pop superstars. The 1980s is also a memorable decade musically, where genres such as new wave, electronic music, rap and hip hop in particular flourished in this period. Technological advancements also brought the music industry into a whole new level.