The 18th century saw developments in science and technology. Theories, ideas, inventions, and practices progressed and developed during this time. Science came to play the lead role during the 18th century because scientific authority began to overthrow religious and traditional authority in exchange of free speech and thought. Let’s take a look at the people who led the improvement and progress in the field of medicine, physics, science, astronomy, and mathematics.
1. Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin is known for his uncanny mind and sharp wit which he used for the betterment of the society. He is also known for several famous inventions such as the step ladder, swim fins, catheter, lightning rod, and bifocal glasses. He did not patented any of his inventions because he did not wanted it to become a source of moneymaking he just wanted to raise the living standards of the masses.
2. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist and he is also known as the father of modern biological classification systems. When he graduated, Linnaeus became an expert biologist and he received a sponsorship to conduct several field studies where thousands of species of flora and fauna were labeled, identified, and catalogued. He also published a series of scientific masterpieces in which he spent his system for dividing the animal and plant kingdoms into series of categories and sub-categories. Linnaeus’ classification system is still the backbone of all modern biological sciences today.
3. Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage is known to be a brilliant polymath and as the first man to build a computing machine. He helped establish the Astronomical Society where he became interested in creating a calculation machine that could compute squares. His invention landed him a sponsorship from the British government which he used in creating a complicated machine called the Analytical Engine. He also designed an open submarine where four people could survive for a couple of days.
4. John Dalton
John Dalton is known to be the father of modern atomic theory. He was the first person to do a weather forecast and he was one of the scientist who used homemade instruments to make weather observations. Most of his early observations and early works using a meteorological instruments led to the foundation for the study of weather forecasting.
5. Leonhard Euler
Leonhard Euler was a Swiss physicist and mathematician. He is known to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time because of the great contributions he made to the field of mathematics. He also worked on different research in fields of fluid dynamics, mechanics, astronomy, and optics.
6. Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier was a French chemist who recognized one of the most important chemical elements, oxygen. He also identified its significance in the process of combustion. Lavoisier was a qualified lawyer but he developed an interest in science and he ended up being a scientist instead.
7. James Watt
James Watt was a Scottish Engineer who is known for creating the first modern steam engine. He modified the Newcomen steam engine and increased its efficiency.
8. William Herschel
William Herschel was a German-British astronomer and composer who discovered the planet Uranus. He also founded the sidereal astronomy for the study of heavenly bodies. William Herschel was also the first man to conclude that the solar system was constantly moving.
9. Joseph Fourier
Fourier was a French physicist and mathematician. He was known for his work on the greenhouse effect. Fourier concluded that the earth should have been colder and it was heated only by radiation. He also suggested that the Earth’s atmosphere might act as an insulator.
10. Daniel Bernoulli
Daniel Bernoulli was a Swiss physicist and mathematician who was known to pioneer the work in the field of fluid dynamics and kinetic theory of gases. One of his most remarkable work was the Bernoulli’s Theorem which still remains to be the general principle of aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and forms the basis of modern aviation.
11. Amadeo Avogadro
Amadeo Avogadro was an Italian scientist who is hailed as a founder of the atomic-molecular theory. Amadeo Avogadro was the first scientist who discovered that elements could occur in the form of molecules rather than separate atoms. He is also famous for formulating the Avogadro’s law which states that equal volumes of gases under the same temperature and pressure will contain the same number of molecules.
12. Henry Cavendish
Henry Cavendish was a British scientist who is known for his discovery of hydrogen. He was also known for performing the Cavendish Experiment where he calculated the mass of Earth.
13. George Ohm
George Ohm was a physicist and mathematician who is known for formulating the Ohm’s Law which defines the relationship between electric force, electric current, and electrical resistance. Several scientist before Ohm done prior research about this relationship but failed. Only George Ohm succeeded in finding out what it is by the use of his philosophical arguments and physical experiments.
14. Augustin-Louis Cauchy
Augustin-Louis Cauchy was a French mathematician who is famous for single-handedly developing the Complex analysis which is traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable. The analysis he formed is useful in many branches of mathematics and physics.
15. Anders Celsius
Anders Celsius was a Swedish physicist, mathematician, and astronomer. He was the one who founded the Uppsala Observatory and the person who proposed the Celsius temperature scale.