What are the Types of Trucks Used in Construction?


Heavy equipment has a factor of effectiveness and efficiency greater than the work done manually. This heavy equipment cannot just be distributed to the field because they need other heavy equipment that functions as a conveyance.  The choice of conveyance is very influential on the goods to be transported, the condition of the terrain to be traversed to the field, and also depends on the function of the conveyance.

In construction work, special hauling equipment that is often used is dump trucks, trailers, dumpers, and other tools. These special conveyances have different functions, advantages, and disadvantages for doing all kinds of jobs.

The advantages of using a small truck are as follows:

  1. More agile in operation
  2. It’s easier to operate
  3. Flexible in long-distance transportation
  4. Consideration of the work path is simpler
  5. Adjustment to loader capabilities is easier
  6. If one truck in one unit does not work, there is no problem with total production.

While the disadvantages are as follows:

  1. More  lost time, due to a large number of trucks in operation, especially when loading
  2. Excavators are more difficult to load because of the small tub
  3. More drivers needed
  4. Maintenance costs are greater because there are more trucks
  5. Increase investment because of the large number of trucks.

Today, there are many types of Dump Trucks on the market, the following will explain several types and types of Dump Trucks, namely:

Articulated Dump Truck

Articulated Dump Truck commonly abbreviated as ADT is a combination of the tractor-trailer, where the cabin and dump body can move freely and flexibly when passing through wet and muddy land. This type of truck can also be used to transport loads on rough and irregular terrain. Articulated dump trucks can also load more material with longer distances. If the condition of the land through which the former quarry and muddy pile is passed, then the Articulated Dump Truck needs to be combined again with a motor grader that speeds up cycle times.
Articulated Dump Truck has 6 characters as follows:

  1. Easy articulation of machine operation
  2. The oscillation tube and artic hinges cause the dump truck to spin 360o and ensure the six wheels stay in contact with the ground. This makes the truck more stable, safety guaranteed, and more efficient engine utilization.
  3. Articulated Dump Trucks are made of perfect and durable steel frames
  4. A strong dump truck system can carry larger loads
  5. Automatic transmission
  6. High-flotation tire, making it easy for dump trucks to operate in various conditions.

Off-Highway Dump Trucks

Off-Highway Dump Trucks

Off-Highway Dump Trucks are colossal, robust vehicles specifically engineered for use in high-capacity, off-road construction and mining operations. These trucks are characterized by their enormous size and high load capacity, making them ideal for transporting large quantities of materials such as ore, rocks, soil, and other mining and construction debris. Unlike standard dump trucks used on public roads, off-highway dump trucks are designed to operate in rugged, challenging terrains often found in mining areas and large construction sites. They come with large, heavy-duty tires and a strong suspension system to navigate through rough, uneven surfaces. The body of these trucks is also designed to handle the abrasive and heavy nature of the materials they transport, ensuring durability and a long service life in harsh working conditions.

One of the most distinctive features of off-highway dump trucks is their immense loading capacity, which can range from 30 tons to over 400 tons, depending on the model and type. These trucks are available in two main configurations: rigid frame and articulated. The rigid frame trucks are suitable for long-distance hauls with a steady load, providing stability and efficiency on well-maintained roads within mines or large earthmoving sites. On the other hand, articulated off-highway dump trucks offer enhanced maneuverability and flexibility, making them better suited for navigating through tighter spaces and rougher terrains. The articulated hinge allows the cab and the dump body to move independently, aiding in better control and stability on challenging grounds. Despite their high capacity and rugged construction, these trucks are engineered with safety and efficiency in mind, often equipped with advanced braking systems, comfortable cabins, and in some cases, technology-assisted operational systems to enhance productivity and operator safety in some of the most demanding work environments.

Rigid Dump Truck

Rigid Dump Truck is a type of dump truck based on the motion system is rigid. The usefulness of this type of dump truck is almost the same as Articulated Dump Truck. This tool is suitable for use to transport material at medium to long distances (500 meters or more). This machine has a large workload, so the machine owner must maintain the highest equipment availability.

Mining/Quarry Dump Truck

Quarry dump truck is a type of dump truck that is commonly used in mining areas that functions to transport mining products such as coal.
This truck has a very large haulage capacity, so maintenance is relatively expensive. Based on the motion system, the Quarry Dump Truck is rigid, so that the performance of this machine is the same as the Rigid Dump Truck, the difference is the function when used at the time of implementation.
The advantage of this type of heavy equipment is that it can transport newly mined material from large-capacity mining sites. While the shortcomings of this heavy equipment are inflexible motion and require a large space of motion.

Standard Dump Truck

Standard Dump Trucks are trucks that can be emptied without handling. Dump trucks are commonly used to transport construction materials. Standard Dump Trucks are equipped with an open body that is operated with hydraulic assistance, the front of the body can be lifted upward, allowing the material to be transported down to the desired location.

Transfer Dump Truck

Transfer Dump Truck is a Standard Dump Truck that can pull separate trailers and can transport construction materials such as (gravel, sand, asphalt, etc.). Usually, this type of dump truck has 2 tanks A and B. The second material is in the trailer (body B), supported by electricity, pneumatic motorized or hydraulic lines. The material in body B is transferred to the empty body (body A) in front of it by launching by relying on a small wheel that moves like a rail. This can maximize load capacity without compromising the maneuverability of a Standard Dump Truck.

Side Dump Truck

Side Dump Truck is one type of dump truck that can spit out its load to the side which functions to transport material during construction. The side dump truck consists of 3 axles pulling tractor and 2 axle semi-trailer. This type of dump truck has a hydraulic ram that functions to tilt the dump body and spill the material it carries to the right or left of this side dump truck. In loading conditions carried out in a narrow and long place, the use of this type of truck is the right choice.

Rear Dump Truck

Rear Dump Truck is one type of dump truck that is useful for transporting construction material that is used for lifting the material by lifting the front of the body. Rear dump trucks are used to transport various types of material. However, loose material such as soil and dry sand is a common material transported by this type of dump truck. Materials such as rocks can damage the truck. So, the transfer must be careful. The body capacity of this type of truck is 25 – 250 tons.

Roll-off Trucks

Roll-off trucks are specialized vehicles designed for efficient transport and disposal of large waste containers, commonly known as roll-off dumpsters. These trucks are distinguishable by their unique mechanism that allows for the loading, unloading, and dumping of containers. They are equipped with a hydraulic system that includes a winch and a large, open rectangular bed. The bed has a set of rollers or wheels that facilitate the movement of the dumpsters. This design enables the truck to place and pick up dumpsters from the ground with ease, making them ideal for various waste management applications, including construction debris, industrial waste, and large-scale clean-up operations.

The versatility of roll-off trucks lies in their ability to handle containers of various sizes and types, ranging from 10 to 40 cubic yards, catering to different project scales and requirements. These trucks are widely used in construction sites, demolition projects, and by large-scale waste collection companies. The roll-off truck drives up to the site, lowers the bed, and then pulls the filled container onto the truck using the winch system. Once secured, the truck transports the container to the designated waste disposal site, landfill, or recycling center. The hydraulic system then tilts the bed, allowing the container to roll off for emptying. This efficient and straightforward mechanism not only streamlines waste management processes but also minimizes the physical strain involved in handling large waste containers, thus enhancing operational safety.

Truck and Pup

The Truck and Pup is a distinctive type of dump truck that is frequently utilized in the construction industry, particularly in large-scale projects requiring substantial material transportation. Characterized by its two-part configuration, it comprises a standard dump truck towing an additional dump trailer, referred to as the “pup”. This configuration effectively doubles the truck’s carrying capacity, making it an efficient choice for transporting large quantities of materials such as gravel, sand, asphalt, or construction debris.

One of the key features of the Truck and Pup is the independent hydraulic lift system for the pup trailer. Unlike the transfer dump truck, the pup trailer in the Truck and Pup setup can unload itself independently, even when not connected to the main truck. This feature provides enhanced flexibility and efficiency on construction sites, as it allows for continuous unloading and transportation of materials. The ability of the pup to self-unload is particularly advantageous in situations where space constraints or operational requirements demand quick and separate unloading of the truck and the trailer.

Winter Service Vehicles

Winter Service Vehicles, commonly known as snowplows or snow removal trucks, play a critical role in maintaining road safety and accessibility during the winter months. These specialized vehicles are equipped with heavy-duty plows and salt spreaders to clear snow and ice from roadways, parking lots, and public spaces. The front-mounted plow blade, often made of steel or hard plastic, is used to push snow aside or off the road surface. This blade can be adjusted in various angles to effectively move snow in desired directions, ensuring clear and passable lanes for traffic. In addition to plowing, these vehicles are often fitted with salt spreaders or sand dispensers at the rear, which help in melting ice and improving traction on slippery surfaces. This combination of plowing and de-icing capabilities makes winter service vehicles indispensable in areas prone to heavy snowfall and icy conditions.

The design and size of winter service vehicles can vary greatly depending on their intended use and the severity of the winter conditions they are designed to combat. Smaller trucks are used for residential streets and parking lots, while larger, more robust vehicles are deployed on highways and main roads. Some of these vehicles are also equipped with advanced features like GPS tracking, automatic salt spreading systems, and ground-speed sensors, allowing for more efficient and targeted snow removal operations. The use of such technology not only enhances the effectiveness of these vehicles but also contributes to environmental conservation by reducing the unnecessary overuse of de-icing materials. Overall, winter service vehicles are essential for ensuring public safety and mobility in harsh winter conditions, allowing cities and communities to function smoothly despite the challenges posed by snow and ice.

Additional Tips

  • If you run dump trucks or any other heavy car, you should keep a floor jack. Vehicles ruin in the middle road and give a pain often. If you have a Strong Floor Jack for Lifted Truck, you can try to repair it.
  • You can also learn more about truck bed mat options.
  • Not only heavy equipment that needs to be transported to the field but building materials or materials need it. Also, you can consider Abnormal Load Transport is an excellent choice for goods transport safely.
  • There are options as well such as a wood chip trailer that can be added.

Final Words

Maybe this article is very complete as well as the settlement in the example problem is very detailed, all of them aim to facilitate you who need it, because of the limitations of the book so this article can be used as teaching material both for those who are in college or practice in the field, so and thank you

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