Interleukin 2 is a type of immunomodulatory cytokine produced by lymphocytes and other body cells. It promotes T-cell differentiation by signaling the IL-2R receptor to induce the proliferation of activated T-cells. A growing body of research also shows IL-2R acts by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of B cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, and monocytes, a large type of white blood cells or leucocyte.
Researchers are also digging deeper to establish the impact of IL-2 during crucial cell processes such as homeostasis and the activation of the immune system. According to the Nature publication, IL-2 is produced by activated CD4 T-cells found in secondary lymphoid organs under normal rested conditions. After the secretion, the IL-2 is re-used in the same site by receptor T-cells, which express the IL-2 receptor subunit CD25.
Antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 are activated during an immune response to produce high volumes of IL-2, which are then utilized by CD25 effector T cells and other cells. Studies also show IL-2 signals can influence lymphocyte subsets during an immune response, homeostatic, and differentiation.
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Other products from the company include growth factors, antibodies, and protein bundles. Shenandoah Biotechnology is proudly made in the USA and is ISO 9001:2015 Certified. Here are additional findings published by NCBI journal regarding interleukin 2:
A Brief History of Interleukin-2
Upon its discovery, Interleukin-2 was initially described as a T-cell growth factor (TCGF), a growth factor of T-cells in vitro, and a potent mitogen. The discovery resulted from several studies showing conditioned media from lymphocytes had the potency to activate polyclonally with plant lectins. Another study established that the availability of radiolabelled TCGF/IL-2 allowed researchers to explore how cytokines interact with T cells.
From the aforementioned studies, researchers discovered that the biological effects of TCGF were induced by the presence of high-affinity cytokine receptors expressed selectively on T cells. In recent years, the discovery of IL-2 has greatly revolutionized immunology research. It is essential to recognize that recent experiments probing the molecular basis for IL-2 gene transcription did open the door to discovering key antigen receptor signal transduction pathways.
Interleukin-2 Signal Transduction
The discovery of IL-2 brought insights into the molecular understanding of how the immune system works, more so when it comes to the control factor. Within every T-cell subset, interleukin-2 has been shown to signal frameworks of transduction networks to effectively shape metabolic and transcriptional programs that play a role in determining the fate of T cells. IL-2 has also been described as having an innate ability to control diverse T cell biology.
Early experiments indicate that key signaling functions of the IL-2 receptor were facilitated by high-affinity IL-2 receptor. In one such case, the triggering of the IL-2 receptor caused Ras GTPase to turn from inactive GDP containing GTP bound state. These studies further indicate the cytosolic serine activation could umpire specific biological effects of IL-2. Researchers are studying how IL-2 controls the activities of nutrient-sensing serine and other receptor cells.
The IL-2 Contradiction
The activities of IL-2, specifically the growth factor and mitogenic actions, have led researchers to hypothesize that IL-2 has a biological capacity to promote cell immune response in vivo. These findings, however, contradicted the mice phenotype with deleted IL-2 alleles. Some of the mice under a study published by NCBI developed normally in the first 4 weeks, while others died within 9 weeks of birth. The remaining mice developed lymphoproliferation, anemia, and ulcerative colitis like inflammatory bowel disease.
Paradoxes in the IL-2 studies have forced researchers to re-evaluate the role of IL-2 as a positive regulator of effector T cell proliferation. Another assessment was that IL-2’s role is to suppress an immune response. Lastly, researchers maintain IL-2 influences effector T cell differentiation and can determine the fate of decisions of antigen receptor-activated T cells