Which Are the Oldest Festivals Still Celebrated Today?

Festivals are more than just fun; they’re a window into the soul of a culture. They weave together stories, traditions, and celebrations that have been passed down through generations. Some of these festivals are as old as time, connecting us to the very roots of human civilization. Understanding these ancient celebrations offers us a glimpse into the values, beliefs, and shared experiences of our ancestors. In this exploration, we’ll dive into five of the world’s oldest festivals that continue to bring color and joy to the present day: Diwali, Nowruz, Passover, Chinese New Year, and the ancient Roman Saturnalia. Each of these festivals carries with it a rich tapestry of history and tradition, inviting us to look back and appreciate the enduring nature of human festivity.

Diwali (India) 

Diwali, often referred to as the Festival of Lights, is one of India’s most beloved and widely celebrated festivals. It symbolizes the triumph of light over darkness and good over evil. Originating from ancient Hindu scriptures, Diwali marks the return of Lord Rama to his kingdom after 14 years of exile, as well as the victory over the demon king Ravana. Homes and public spaces are illuminated with diyas (oil lamps) and colorful lights, creating a magical atmosphere of warmth and joy.

The celebration spans five days, filled with rituals, fireworks, and the sharing of sweets among family and friends. People clean and decorate their homes, wear new clothes, and perform prayers to Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity. Diwali is not just a Hindu festival; it’s also observed by followers of Jainism, Sikhism, and Buddhism, each adding their own meanings and traditions. This collective joy and the spirit of renewal make Diwali a time of unity and reflection across different communities.

Nowruz (Iran and Persian Diaspora) 

Nowruz, the Persian New Year, heralds the arrival of spring and celebrates the rebirth of nature. This ancient festival, with roots stretching back over 3,000 years, is a testament to the enduring spirit of the Persian culture. Falling on the vernal equinox, usually around March 21st, Nowruz is a time of hope, renewal, and joy. It symbolizes the victory of light over darkness, warmth over cold, and life over death. Families across Iran and the Persian diaspora come together to observe this cherished tradition, preparing for the new year with rituals that cleanse the past and welcome the future.

The heart of Nowruz celebrations is the Haft-Seen table, a carefully arranged display of seven symbolic items starting with the letter ‘S’ in the Persian alphabet. These include sprouts (symbolizing rebirth), apples (for beauty and health), and garlic (for medicine), among others. Homes are thoroughly cleaned, new clothes are worn, and special foods are prepared, reflecting the spirit of renewal. Nowruz is not just a cultural event; it’s a universal moment of joy that bridges communities, inviting everyone to partake in the renewal of the world.

Passover (Judaism)

Passover is a pivotal Jewish holiday that commemorates the liberation of the Israelites from Egyptian slavery, as narrated in the Exodus story of the Hebrew Bible. This ancient festival, dating back thousands of years, centers around themes of freedom, redemption, and the resilience of the human spirit. Families gather for the Seder, a ritual-packed feast that retells the Exodus story through food, songs, and prayers. Each element on the Seder plate is symbolic, from the bitter herbs representing the bitterness of slavery to the matzah recalling the haste with which the Israelites fled Egypt, leaving no time for their bread to rise.

The celebration of Passover lasts for seven to eight days, depending on where it is observed. During this time, observers abstain from eating leavened bread (chametz) to honor the memory of their ancestors’ swift flight from oppression. Passover is a time for reflection on the themes of freedom and human dignity, resonating not just within Jewish communities but also offering universal lessons on the value of perseverance through hardship. It’s a reminder of the ongoing struggle for freedom and justice in many parts of the world, making Passover’s message as relevant today as it was millennia ago.

Chinese New Year (China and Chinese Diaspora) 

Chinese New Year, also known as Lunar New Year or Spring Festival, is the most significant traditional Chinese holiday, celebrated with fervor across China and in Chinese communities worldwide. This festival marks the beginning of the lunar New Year, which is tied to the Chinese lunar-solar calendar. The celebration’s roots can be traced back to ancient times, intended to honor household and heavenly deities, as well as ancestors. It’s a time for families to come together, settle old debts, and wish for prosperity and good fortune in the year ahead.

The festivities last for 15 days, culminating in the Lantern Festival. Homes and streets are adorned with red decorations, symbolizing good luck and happiness. Fireworks light up the sky to ward off evil spirits, and dragon dances fill the streets, adding to the vibrant atmosphere. Traditional foods play a crucial role in the celebrations, with each dish symbolizing a specific wish for the coming year, such as longevity, wealth, and health. Giving red envelopes (hóngbāo) containing money to children and unmarried adults is a common practice, further symbolizing the transfer of good fortune. 

Saturnalia (Ancient Rome)

Saturnalia was the ancient Roman festival in honor of Saturn, the god of agriculture, celebrated in December. Originally starting as a single day, it expanded to a week-long festivity by the late Republic. This festival turned Roman social norms upside down: businesses and schools closed, and the usual social hierarchies were temporarily dissolved. Slaves were given temporary freedoms to speak their minds and partake in the feasts as equals, a rare moment of social inversion that underscored the festival’s themes of liberty and equality.

During Saturnalia, Romans decorated their homes with wreaths and greenery, exchanged gifts, particularly wax candles signifying light returning after the solstice, and partook in lavish banquets and revelry. Gambling, normally forbidden, was permitted, and the streets were alive with joyous celebrations. While Saturnalia is no longer celebrated in its original form, its spirit influenced later Christian celebrations, particularly Christmas. The tradition of gift-giving, merry-making, and certain festive decorations during the Christmas season can trace their roots back to the ancient Saturnalia, showcasing the enduring legacy of this Roman festival in modern celebrations.

Chhath Puja

The Chhath Puja is an ancient Hindu festival dedicated to the Sun God, Surya, and his sister Chhathi Maiya, to thank them for bestowing the bounties of life on earth and to request the granting of certain wishes. This festival is predominantly observed in the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and the Madhesh region of Nepal, but with the diaspora, it’s celebrated globally among the Bihari and Nepalese communities. The rituals of Chhath Puja span four days and include holy bathing, fasting, standing in water for long periods, and offering prasad (prayer offerings) and arghya (water offerings) to the setting and rising sun.

The significance of Chhath Puja lies in its eco-friendly practices and the devotion of its participants, who undergo strict rituals without any expectation of material gain, focusing solely on spiritual upliftment and the well-being of their family and society. The festival fosters a deep sense of community as people gather on riverbanks and water bodies to perform the puja. The serene atmosphere during the sunrise and sunset prayers, accompanied by folk songs dedicated to Surya and Chhathi Maiya, adds to the spiritual and cultural richness of Chhath Puja, making it a unique celebration of devotion, nature, and the human spirit.

Festival Name Year/Period It Started
Diwali c. 2,500 BCE (approximation)
Nowruz c. 3,000 BCE (approximation)
Passover c. 1,300 BCE (based on biblical events)
Chinese New Year c. 14th century BCE (Shang Dynasty)
Saturnalia c. 217 BCE (official Roman calendar introduction)
Chhath Puja c. Early Vedic Period (no exact date)

Please note that these dates and periods are approximations and subject to interpretation based on historical and religious contexts. The exact origins of many of these festivals are difficult to pinpoint due to their deep roots in oral traditions and ancient practices that predate written records.


From the ancient lights of Diwali to the reflective moments of Ramadan, each festival carries with it a unique legacy of history, spirituality, and communal unity. These celebrations not only connect us to our ancestors but also to each other, transcending time and geography to highlight the universal human capacity for reverence, joy, and renewal. As we look back at these age-old festivities, it’s clear that they offer more than just a glimpse into the past; they provide a living bridge to our collective heritage, reminding us of the shared threads of humanity that persist in the tapestry of modern life.

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