The Mystery Behind the Baghdad Battery


In the realm of ancient artifacts, few are as intriguing and contentious as the Baghdad Battery. This object, unearthed in the outskirts of Baghdad, Iraq, in the 1930s, presents a riddle wrapped in the enigma of our ancient past. Believed to date back to the Parthian or Sasanian periods, approximately 2,000 years ago, the Baghdad Battery challenges our understanding of historical technological advancement. 

The simple clay jar, equipped with an iron rod and a copper cylinder, has led some to speculate that our ancestors might have had a basic understanding of electricity long before the modern era. This article aims to explore the Baghdad Battery, examining its construction, possible uses, and the debates it has sparked among historians and scientists.

What is the Baghdad Battery?

copper ore used for the interior of the Baghdad Battery

The Baghdad Battery, an artifact that dates back to around 250 BC to AD 224, is an object of fascination and debate among historians and scientists. Its discovery in 1938 near Baghdad, Iraq, has led to numerous speculations about its purpose and functionality. Let’s explore what this ancient device is and how it possibly worked.

The Structure of the Baghdad Battery

The basic components of the Baghdad Battery are surprisingly simple yet intriguing. It consists of a clay jar, about five inches tall, with a copper cylinder inside it. This cylinder houses an iron rod isolated from the copper by plugs made of asphalt or bitumen. These materials were all commonly available in the area during the Parthian and Sasanian periods.

The Working Hypothesis

The hypothesis that the Baghdad Battery might have been an ancient galvanic cell (a simple battery) arises from its structure. When filled with an acidic or alkaline substance, such as vinegar or lemon juice, the combination of copper and iron could have produced an electric current. This setup is similar in principle to a basic modern battery, where two different metals create an electric charge when immersed in an electrolytic solution.

The Electroplating Theory

One popular theory suggests that the Baghdad Battery might have been used for electroplating, a process of depositing a layer of metal onto an object. The electric current generated by the battery could have been used to plate gold onto silver items, a practice that was known in ancient times but thought to have been done using a fire-gilding process, not electricity.

Skepticism and Alternate Theories

Despite these theories, there is considerable skepticism about the Baghdad Battery being a source of electricity. Some experts argue that there is no definitive evidence to prove its use as a battery. Alternative explanations suggest that it might have been a storage vessel for sacred scrolls or simply a container for mundane purposes, with its perceived ‘battery’ components being coincidental.

Who Invented the Baghdad Battery?

the symbol for Copper on the periodic table

The question of who invented the Baghdad Battery takes us back to a time steeped in history but scant in records. So, the creators of this intriguing device remain shrouded in the mists of time since there was no evidence or records that could help us pinpoint the genius or geniuses behind the Baghdad Battery.

A Civilization Ahead of Its Time?

The regions that encompassed ancient Parthia and Sassanid were known for their rich cultures and advanced scientific knowledge. The people of these eras had made significant strides in astronomy, engineering, and medicine. However, the concept of electricity, as understood today, was not known to be within their realm of expertise.

The Absence of Historical Records

One of the biggest challenges in identifying the inventors of the Baghdad Battery is the lack of historical records. No ancient texts or inscriptions that reference the device or its purpose have been found. This absence of documentary evidence has left historians and archaeologists to piece together the puzzle based solely on the artifact itself and the context of its discovery.

Speculations and Theories

Without concrete evidence, the identity of the Baghdad Battery’s inventors remains speculative. Some scholars suggest that it could have been the work of skilled artisans or alchemists experimenting with new materials and techniques. Others propose that it might have been created under the guidance of learned scholars in ancient academies or libraries, such as the famed Library of Alexandria.

A Legacy of Mystery

In the absence of clear historical attribution, the Baghdad Battery not only remains a technological enigma but also a testament to the innovative spirit of ancient civilizations. Whoever the inventors were, they inadvertently left a legacy that continues to fascinate and perplex the modern world.

While the origins and purpose of the Baghdad Battery are subjects of ongoing debate and investigation, the identity of its creators remains one of the greatest unsolved mysteries of the ancient world. This elusive piece of history serves as a reminder of the vast, untapped knowledge of our ancestors and the countless stories from our past that are yet to be uncovered and understood.  For other strange items and locations besides the Baghdad Battery, you can read The Most Mysterious Archeological Discoveries.


The discovery of the Baghdad Battery has sparked a blend of fascination and debate among historians, scientists, and enthusiasts. Whether it was an ancient electrical device, a tool for medicinal purposes, or merely a storage vessel, the Baghdad Battery challenges our understanding of historical technological advancements.

This artifact, dating back thousands of years, invites us to consider the possibility that ancient civilizations may have possessed knowledge and skills far beyond what is commonly attributed to them. The absence of concrete historical context or documentation only adds to the enigma, leaving the true purpose and origins of the Baghdad Battery open to interpretation and conjecture.

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