What’s the Story Behind Naming the Color Red?


Have you ever stopped to ponder the names of the colors we see around us every day? Red, a color that pulses with life and vibrates with intensity, is more than just a shade on the color wheel. It’s a color rich in history, emotion, and cultural significance. But where did the name ‘red’ come from, and how has it evolved over time?

In this article, we’ll discuss the origins of the color name ‘red.’ From ancient languages to modern meanings, we’ll explore how this vibrant color has been woven into the fabric of human history. Whether you’re an art enthusiast, a linguist, or simply curious about the world around you, join us as we uncover the fascinating story behind naming the color red.

The Etymology of Red

Red lipstick swatch

The story of the color red begins in the history of human language, tracing back to ancient roots that show how deeply interconnected our ancestors were with the natural world around them. The word ‘red’ has a rich etymology, unfolding through the ages to reveal a tapestry of linguistic connections.

Proto-Indo-European Roots

The journey starts with the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) word *reudh-, which is believed to be one of the earliest linguistic ancestors of the modern English word ‘red.’ This term was associated with the color of earthy elements, like rust or blood, which were vivid and significant in the daily lives of early humans.

Old English and Beyond

As languages evolved, so did the word for this fiery hue. In Old English, the word ‘red’ was spelled as ‘read,’ pronounced with a long vowel sound. It wasn’t just a color; it was a descriptor for reddened, flushed faces or the ruddy complexion of someone exposed to the elements, showcasing the color’s deep connection to human experience and nature.

Global Linguistic Threads

The fascination with red isn’t confined to the English language or its ancestors. Many languages around the world have unique words for red, often reflecting cultural significance, natural elements, or historical events tied to the color. For instance, in Japanese, the word ‘aka’ is used for red, a color deeply woven into the nation’s culture, symbolizing energy, life, and even sacredness in certain contexts.

Through the etymology of ‘red,’ we glimpse into humanity’s shared yet diverse experiences with this captivating color. Its name carries our ancestors’ awe and reverence for the natural world, a sentiment that continues to color our language and perceptions today.

Red in Ancient Civilizations

The color red has always held a powerful place in the tapestry of human history, weaving its way through various ancient civilizations, each imbuing it with its own unique significance and symbolism. From the walls of cave paintings to the regalia of kings and queens, red has been a color of power, spirituality, and life itself.

Mesopotamia: The Cradle of Civilization

In the bustling cities of ancient Mesopotamia, red pigments were highly prized for their vibrancy and durability. Red ochre, a naturally occurring mineral pigment, was used extensively in pottery, seals, and even in the elaborate murals that adorned the palaces and temples. Red symbolized life and vitality, echoing the life-giving properties of blood and the fertility of the earth.

Ancient Egypt: A Divine Hue

In the land of the Pharaohs, red was a color of both life and death. The Egyptians associated red with the sun god Ra, symbolizing the force of creation and destruction. They used red pigments made from minerals like ochre and cinnabar to decorate tombs, believing it would protect the deceased in the afterlife. Red also featured prominently in Egyptian art and hieroglyphs, signifying energy, health, and victory.

Classical Antiquity: A Symbol of Status

In ancient Greece and Rome, red took on a more social and political connotation. The Greeks associated red with the god of war, Ares, and the heroes of their myths often wore red as a sign of courage and strength. In Rome, red was the color of the military and the elite. Senators and generals wore togas with red borders, a symbol of their authority and status. The most expensive red pigment, derived from the Kermes vermilio insect, was reserved for the use of the Emperor and his closest associates, making red a literal marker of power and prestige.

The Americas: Sacred and Profound

Across the Atlantic, in the ancient civilizations of the Americas, red held a sacred and profound significance. The Maya considered red to be the color of the East, one of the cardinal directions, and associated it with the rising sun, life, and rebirth. In North American Indigenous cultures, red was often used in ceremonial contexts, symbolizing success, beauty, and spiritual power.

The Science and Perception of Red

Lots of red shirts

The color red is not just a feast for the eyes but also a fascinating subject for scientific inquiry. Its perception and impact on humans go beyond mere aesthetics, delving into the realms of biology, psychology, and cultural studies. Here’s a look at the multifaceted nature of red through a scientific lens:

  • Wavelength and Visibility: Red light has one of the longest wavelengths in the visible spectrum, ranging from approximately 620 to 750 nanometers. This long wavelength makes red one of the most attention-grabbing colors, often used in signals and warning signs.
  • Biological Responses: Research suggests that red can have profound effects on our body and mind. It can increase heart rate and blood pressure, indicating its stimulating nature. This biological response might be why red is often associated with energy, passion, and danger.
  • Color Vision: Humans perceive color through cells in the retina called cones. Red light is primarily detected by the L-cones (long-wavelength cones), which send signals to our brain to interpret the color. This process is integral to how we distinguish red from other colors in our environment.
  • Psychological Effects: Red is known to evoke strong emotions, ranging from love and warmth to anger and aggression. Studies in color psychology have shown that red can enhance physical performance, increase competitiveness, and even influence consumer behavior, making it a powerful color in marketing and branding.
  • Cultural Interpretations: The perception of red varies significantly across cultures, influencing its use and symbolism. In some cultures, red is the color of prosperity and joy, and it is used in weddings and festivals. In others, it may symbolize danger, prohibition, or caution, shaping societal norms and practices.
  • Impact on Perception and Behavior: The color red can affect perception and behavior in nuanced ways. For instance, in competitive sports, teams wearing red are often perceived as more dominant or likely to win. Similarly, red accents in restaurants can stimulate appetite, showcasing the color’s influence on our actions and decisions.

Red Through the Ages

Painted red chalk stripes

The color red has painted its way through history, leaving a vibrant mark on civilizations, art, fashion, and symbolism across millennia. Its journey through time reflects the evolution of societies, technologies, and the shifting sands of cultural values. Here’s a glimpse into how red has been revered, utilized, and symbolized through the ages:

Prehistoric Times

  • Cave Paintings: Red ochre, one of the earliest pigments used by humans, was employed in prehistoric cave paintings to depict animals, human figures, and scenes from daily life. These ancient artworks, found in sites across the globe, showcase the significance of red in early human expression and ritual.

Ancient Civilizations

  • Egyptian Royalty and Divinity: In ancient Egypt, red was associated with life, health, and victory. Pharaohs and deities were often depicted wearing red to signify their power and connection to the life-giving blood of Isis, the mother goddess.
  • Roman Status and Power: In Rome, red cloaks and togas were reserved for generals and later emperors, symbolizing authority, military prowess, and the gods’ favor. The famous ‘red carpet’ treatment has roots in these ancient displays of honor and respect.

The Middle Ages to the Renaissance

  • Religious and Royal Symbolism: During the Middle Ages, red continued to hold a prestigious place in society, often associated with the robes of cardinals and kings. Its use in art and tapestries of the time reflected its enduring association with nobility and the divine.
  • Artistic Revelations: The Renaissance saw a revolution in the use of red, particularly with the introduction of new pigments like vermilion and, later, carmine. Artists like Titian and Rembrandt masterfully employed these hues, adding depth and emotion to their works and forever changing the landscape of painting.

Modern Times

  • Political and Social Movements: In more recent history, red has taken on powerful political and social connotations. It has been the color of revolution, from the red flags of the French Revolution to the banners of the Soviet Union, symbolizing change, socialism, and communism.
  • Fashion and Culture: In the fashion world, red has oscillated between the height of luxury and the edge of rebellion. From the iconic red soles of Christian Louboutin to the punk rock movement, red continues to make bold statements in clothing and style.
  • Technology and Innovation: The digital age has given red new platforms and meanings, from the red in LED displays to its use in branding for companies like Coca-Cola and Netflix. Red’s attention-grabbing quality makes it a favorite in logos and design, maintaining its status as a color of impact and emotion.

The Evolution of Red in Modern Languages and Cultures

Linguistic Diversity

Modern languages often have several terms to describe the various shades of red, from scarlet to burgundy, indicating not just a color but a spectrum of experiences and associations. This linguistic richness allows for precise expression and reflects the cultural importance of these nuances. Red features prominently in idioms and phrases across languages, often conveying emotions, warnings, or prohibitions. Phrases like “seeing red” to denote anger or “rolling out the red carpet” for a grand welcome highlight how deeply intertwined red is with our linguistic expressions.

Cultural Connotations

In different cultures, red continues to hold significant symbolic weight. In East Asian countries, red is often associated with luck, joy, and prosperity, prominently featured in festivals and weddings. Conversely, in some Western contexts, red can signify danger or caution, as seen in traffic lights and warning signs. Culturally, red remains a powerful statement in fashion and design, symbolizing everything from passion and seduction to status and power. The cultural backdrop of society can greatly influence how red is perceived in attire and decor, making it a versatile tool for self-expression and aesthetic appeal.

Technological Influence

In the digital age, red has taken on new life in media and technology, where it’s used to attract attention, signal notifications, or denote urgency. The specific shades of red used in logos, interfaces, and visual content are carefully chosen to evoke the desired response tailored to the cultural expectations of the target audience. As cultures intersect in our globalized world, the perception and meaning of red are ever-evolving. Exposure to different cultures through travel, media, and the internet has led to a more nuanced understanding of red, blending, and sometimes challenging traditional associations.

Environmental and Social Movements

Red has been adopted by various environmental and social movements to signify urgency and call to action, such as the climate change movement. The choice of red in these contexts draws on its ability to command attention and convey the critical nature of the issues at hand. Indigenous and minority cultures are also reclaiming red and its traditional shades for cultural revival and preservation. Through art, fashion, and ceremonies, these communities use red to connect with their heritage, tell their stories, and highlight the richness of their cultural practices.


The color red carries with it a tapestry of meanings, histories, and emotions that stretch across time and cultures. From its ancient origins to its modern manifestations, red has continued to be a powerful symbol in our language, art, and everyday lives. We hope this article helped you learn more about the story behind naming the color red.

If you are also fascinated with the color orange, you may read our post about how orange got its name.

Share this


Why Does Beer Taste Better When Ice Cold?

You've probably noticed that beer tastes much better when it's ice cold, but have you ever wondered why? The answer lies in the science of temperature and its effect on the perception of flavors. When beer is chilled the cold temperature numbs the taste buds slightly, which can make the beer taste crisper and less bitter. This cooling effect can also...

Chang Beer: Thailand’s Beloved Brew

Known for its unique blend and global acclaim, discover what makes Chang Beer Thailand's beloved brew since 1995.

Kozel: The Czech Republic’s Smooth and Flavorful Beer

Mix your ideal blend with Kozel, the Czech Republic's smooth and flavorful beer, and discover a new world of taste.

Recent articles

More like this