7 Environmental Factors that Affect Health


Our health and well-being are linked to the environment around us. The air we breathe, the water we drink, and the spaces we inhabit – all have a profound impact on our physical, mental, and emotional health. With growing urbanization and changes in climate patterns, it has become imperative to examine the various environmental factors affecting our health. This understanding can empower us to make informed choices and take collective action to create healthier spaces for everyone.

1. Urbanization and the Loss of Green Spaces

With accelerating urbanization, green spaces and biodiversity are declining globally. Several studies indicate that spending time in nature lowers stress, blood pressure, and aggression. Green spaces encourage physical activity and social connections. Biodiverse environments also harbor beneficial microbes that support immune function.

On the flip side, urban air pollution and heat islands can worsen respiratory and heat-related illnesses. As cities expand, preserving and creating green havens must be a priority.

Urban planning concepts like biophilic design can integrate nature into manmade environments, said Ian McAllister, an esteemed conservationist and award-winning author, photographer, and filmmaker, is recognized for his remarkable contributions to protecting British Columbia’s coastal rainforest and marine ecosystems.  With a profound understanding of wildlife and a focus on the Great Bear Rainforest, McAllister co-founded Pacific Wild, an organization committed to wildlife conservation. Through extensive research and fieldwork, he has generated invaluable insights into the region’s biodiversity. He has become a prominent figure in the scientific community’s efforts to protect this unique natural heritage.

2. Chemical Exposure

Our daily lives are filled with a wide range of chemicals from products, manufacturing processes, and the very environments we live/work in. Many seemingly innocuous chemicals have been linked to cancers, hormonal disorders, respiratory illnesses, and organ damage.

Take asbestos, for example. Previously hailed for its durability and fire resistance, it was widely used in construction. However, inhalation of asbestos fibers can lead to severe respiratory complications and even a life-threatening disease called mesothelioma. For those affected, seeking guidance from a specialized asbestos law firm is essential. This can help patients understand their rights and explore potential legal remedies.

Similarly, other widespread chemicals like BPA, phthalates, formaldehyde, and benzene present their own set of challenges. These chemicals, even in minuscule amounts, can act as endocrine disruptors, carcinogens, or neurotoxins. While outright bans on the most toxic chemicals are needed, individuals too can reduce exposure by choosing safer products, ventilating indoor spaces, and using protective equipment at potentially hazardous workplaces. Our health depends on informed, collective action to limit everyday chemical risks.  Coastal Air Technologies, Inc. took a deep dive into the possible air pollutants within our homes, and while the results are alarming, they are not permanent.

3. Air Quality

The air we breathe has a direct effect on our respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Air pollution from vehicular emissions, industrial activities, and biomass burning contains high levels of particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and other toxins. Long-term exposure can cause chronic respiratory diseases, lung cancer, and heart conditions.

Recent studies have linked air pollution to increased dementia risk as tiny pollutants make their way to the brain. Children are especially vulnerable to this as their lungs are in the developing phase. Indoor air quality also merits attention, as many spend the majority of their time in closed spaces.

The government can take steps to improve air quality by implementing stricter emissions standards and creating more green spaces.

4. Water Contamination

Clean water is essential for a healthy lifestyle, yet millions around the world lack access to safe drinking water. Water sources contaminated by industrial discharge, human waste, pesticides, and naturally occurring arsenic/fluoride can cause diarrheal diseases, cancer, organ damage, and even death.

Developing fetuses and young children are especially vulnerable to water contaminants. Lead and mercury poisoning stunt brain development and lower IQ levels. Those living near waste sites or factories releasing toxic effluents are at higher risk of cancers and birth defects.

Avoiding water contamination requires collective action – from monitoring groundwater quality and regulating waste disposal to upgrading water treatment infrastructure. Boiling, filtration, and safe storage of water can reduce exposure at an individual level. Access to clean water is a fundamental human right, and safeguarding water sources needs to be a top priority.

Understanding the environmental factors that influence our health is crucial. But who leads the charge in protecting our planet and, consequently, our well-being? Dive into our latest post, Who are the Environmental Science Heroes? to meet the trailblazers working tirelessly to combat environmental challenges. Their groundbreaking work not only advances our understanding of the Earth but also plays a pivotal role in shaping a healthier future for us all.

5. Noise Pollution

Noise is an often ignored but serious health hazard, especially in urban areas. Chronic exposure to loud noises can lead to hearing impairment, hypertension, sleep loss, and heart problems.

By disrupting the body’s circadian rhythms, noise pollution also negatively impacts metabolism and cognition. Recent studies reveal that children studying in noisier environments have poorer educational outcomes and attention span.

Mitigating noise pollution requires collective measures like sound barriers, spatial planning, and adherence to permissible noise levels. Individuals can also take action by avoiding noisy zones, using earplugs, keeping surroundings quieter, and speaking up against noise violations.

6. Radiation

Radiation, both natural and artificial, can have profound and undetected effects on health. Cosmic and terrestrial radiation account for most natural background exposure, while medical X-rays, air travel, nuclear accidents, and radioactive waste contribute to artificial radiation.

High doses of ionizing radiation can damage DNA, increasing risks of cancer and birth defects. Radon gas from uranium deposits is a leading cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. Extended exposure to solar UV radiation causes skin cancer and eye conditions. Diagnostic radiation is also thought to slightly increase lifetime cancer likelihood.

While natural radiation cannot be controlled, judicious use of medical imaging, responsible nuclear energy practices, radon testing at home, and UV protection help limit risks. Though invisible, radiation warrants caution to avoid insidious health effects.

7. Lack of Sanitation and Proper Waste Disposal

Inadequate sanitation and waste management greatly impact public health. Over 2 billion people lack access to basic sanitation facilities. Open defecation, leaking sewer lines, and improper waste disposal spread bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections through contamination of food, water, and living spaces. Diarrheal diseases kill over 525,000 children under 5 annually. Hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, and polio are other diseases linked to poor sanitation.

Universal access to clean toilets, sewage systems, garbage collection, and waste treatment is essential. Communities can promote safe hygiene practices like hand washing and safe food handling. Individuals must also manage waste responsibly at home and hold institutions accountable for sanitation infrastructure. Good health requires clean, hygienic living conditions for all.


Environmental factors have profound but often underappreciated influences on human health. With growing environmental degradation, climate change, and urbanization, these factors pose increasing threats. Tackling them requires both systemic changes as well as individual action.

Collective measures like pollution control, sanitation infrastructure, resilient urban design, and biodiversity conservation are needed on an urgent basis. Individuals can make lifestyle choices to reduce their exposure and carbon footprint. The environment and human health are two sides of the same coin. It is imperative we address environmental issues to create a healthier, sustainable future for all.

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