The Persian civilization is considered to be one of the scientific civilizations they created many ingenious and revolutionary things we still use today like the battery, refrigerator, postal service, and sulfuric acid. These inventions go to show that the Persian civilization shows a high degree of advancement and intelligence of its citizens. Let’s take a look at the discoveries and inventions of the Persian civilization.
1. Human Rights
The first concept of human rights takes its roots in ancient Persia. It is said that the first king of Persia, Cyrus the Great freed the slaves and gave the people their right to choose their own religion and established racial equality. Cyrus the Great’s declaration of these rights was recorded and written in a baked cylinder in the Akkadian language. And today it is known as the Cyrus Cylinder which was discovered in the ruins of Babylon in Mesopotamia.
2. Qanat or the water supply system
The Qanat was a water management system that the Persians used in irrigation and for drinking at houses. It is said that the Qanat tunnels were hand dug and it was big enough to fit a person to dig the tunnel. The Persians were the first people who developed this system and it slowly spread in different countries since then.
3. Postal Service
The regular postal service began in ancient Persia during the 6th century BC under the reign of Cyrus the Great. This postal system was said to be fast and reliable because it consists of several stations along a 2,500-meter highway all over the empire. And the postmen, who are called the Chapars, rode a horse to deliver the post to one kingdom to another.
4. Sulfuric Acid
A Persian scholar named Zakariya Razi was the first man who discovered sulfuric acid and alcohol. It is considered to be one of the most important discoveries because it became the basis for chemical engineering in the modern-day field of chemistry. Today, sulfuric acid is used to make detergents and fertilizers.
The ancient Persians created the first ever refrigerator and they called it the Yakhchal which means ice pit in Persian. The Yakhchal is a dome-shaped structure that looks like a small mountain and it is used to store ice and foods.
The Persian battery is a ceramic jar with one tube of metal and a rod. These batteries were found in Mahoze and they were tested by scientists who revealed that the jar of the batteries was filled with electrolytes such as vinegar which can generate a current of 1.5 o 2.0 volts.
Some say that animation started during the ancient Persian civilization because there was an earthenware goblet that was discovered in the Burnt City in Sistan and it shows a sequence of drawings of a goat that jumps over a tree then eats its leaves.
Although there are some arguments that the game of chess originated from India, there are some ancient Pscript that mentions of chess which can be found in the Persian literature. And the oldest chess pieces can be traced back from the Persian lands which just proves that chess originated in Persia.
The founding father of algebra was a Persian scholar named Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarazmi. He is popular for his method of teaching where he taught algebra as an independent science. He is also known for offering practical answers for rules on inheritance, salary, and land distribution.
This game was invented by the Persians around 3000 BC and it is one of the oldest surviving board game. And to this day, Backgammon is still popular in the Iranian region where you can still see people playing it in cafes and public parks all over the country.
Facts About the Ancient Persian Kingdom
- Persian kings were known to have extravagant lives. In fact, when King Darius III went off to fight Alexander the Great, he brought with him 300 musicians, 300 cooks, and 70 wine fillers. Talk about an entourage!
- At one point in history, the Achaemenid Empire became huge that it contained almost 44 percent of the world’s population with over 49.4 million people in its population.
- Being the human rights believer that he is, Cyrus’ empire was probably the most diverse empire during that time. Because it contained different ethnic groups that are living in harmony under the imperial conquest. Cyrus also allowed his people to maintain their own beliefs.
- The first ever woman to be diagnosed with breast cancer and survived it was Queen Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus the Great.
- The Persians loved to wear expensive jewelry all over their bodies.